What is difference between TLS and HTTPS?

What is difference between TLS and HTTPS?

TL;DR. There is no difference between TLS and HTTPS. They are just different names for the same thing.

TLS stands for Transport Layer Security and HTTPS stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure. Both protocols use encrypted communication between client and server over a network.

If you want to know more about the history of encryption protocols and their evolution, read on. The History of Encryption Protocols. The history of encryption protocols is a long one, starting with the ancient practice of using ciphers or codes to send messages over a trusted network. The first known method was a symmetric cipher called "Enigma" invented in World War II by the German cryptographer Arthur Scherbius. It was very primitive and had huge security issues. Later on, it was replaced by a much more secure asymmetric cipher called "RSA". The name of this cipher comes from the last three letters of its creator's name, which is what the American cryptographer Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman were called.

It's also worth noting that before the internet existed, there was no public key encryption, which has been a huge security improvement. In 1983, Diffie-Hellman key exchange was invented and public key encryption was introduced. Public key encryption became the norm in digital communications after RSA was introduced. Today, both symmetric and asymmetric encryption are used in modern communications.

How encryption works. All encryption and decryption algorithms have a mathematical function that can be split into two parts: Encrypting: The transformation of plain text into cipher text. Decrypting: The transformation of cipher text back into plain text.

In TLS and HTTPS, the first part is called "encryption" and the second part is called "signature". Let's take a look at how it works. Let's say Alice wants to send Bob a message. She opens a browser and visits Bob's website. Once she is on the website, Bob will perform an action that he is telling Alice to do. Let's say Bob clicks on the blue button.

In this example, Bob will send a request to Alice's browser which then sends a request to Alice's device.

How does HTTPS work with TLS?

I'm reading some material about SSL/TLS security, and was wondering about the exact mechanism for protecting data being transferred. The TLS spec doesn't really say much about how it is done. From my understanding of how TLS works, I believe that a connection between client and server is established, and the client and server handshake information is sent. The connection is then encrypted and the actual content exchanged (data) is also encrypted with either AES-256 or other secure algorithms. However, I'm not sure how the encryption is actually handled.

In particular, I'm interested in these aspects: How the data itself is encrypted in the HTTPS protocol. Which part of the TLS protocol encrypts the data and which part unencrypts it. Thanks in advance! The key exchange is the same as the regular DH-type exchange used in asymmetric RSA encryption. Data can be encrypted directly without going through the session keys (handshake data).

It is encrypted with an RSA public key in the "master key exchange" (which only happens once per session). That encryption is only for authentication. Authentication means: Can you trust that this key belongs to who claims it? For this only, it is used. But it is not a transport encryption and you can not distinguish it from the regular decryption.

The actual traffic encryption is the "session key encryption", done with symmetric encryption or possibly with asymmetric encryption (for RSA). When we come to TLSv1.2, there is a new session cipher for this transport encryption. Previously, for old TLSv1.x servers the AEAD algorithms have been used. The name for the transport encryption, which is used for the whole handshake for example, is "key agreement".

Does TLS support HTTPS?

There was a little discussion around TLS in the #go-nuts IRC channel last night, and I thought it might be interesting to summarize that conversation here. TL;DR: No, not yet. Go does not yet support HTTPS connections.

The issue. Most Go developers will likely be aware of the fact that Go doesn't have built-in support for TLS. That's correct. It isn't clear what it means, but it seems to imply that Go doesn't support cryptographic security protocols at all. For many Go developers this isn't particularly surprising: after all, Go is just a tiny programming language, and most of the big names in that world don't offer TLS as a part of their toolkit. In addition, Go is young enough that you can be sure that it doesn't mean anything about security protocols more broadly, including TLS.

I'm willing to accept that Go doesn't actually mean what it says, and that Go developers will eventually start using TLS. This is perfectly reasonable. In fact, it's quite reasonable to expect that Go developers will use TLS, given that it's a generally accepted standard for secure internet communication. It is the case that Go developers will almost certainly want TLS, so it seems fair to assume that Go will eventually offer TLS, or at least support for TLS, or else they will be left behind.

However, as a user of Go, I'm interested in knowing how likely it is that I will want TLS. If I use Go today, I have to expect that I will be stuck with HTTP/2, which is not ideal. I'd rather go with TLS.

It's also true that it's not impossible for a Go developer to add support for TLS. The Go compiler itself already has a "no" answer to the question "does Go support TLS", and it should be possible for a third-party library to tell me whether TLS is available. However, there are two problems with asking Go directly for its TLS support:

The Go team hasn't even started to consider TLS. (Or, perhaps more accurately, they haven't made any decision on the matter.) A project released in 2023 may not yet have TLS support. There's no easy way for me to find out about this, even when I'm using the latest release.

What is TLS/SSL Protocol?

TLS/SSL is a communication protocol used to establish a secure channel over a network. It provides authentication and data integrity for exchanging sensitive data between client and server.

The use of TLS enables a client to securely establish a connection to a website or an application server. SSL is the name of the TLS protocol. TLS was developed in the early 1990s by Netscape Communications Corporation, and it's been used extensively in business, commerce, and other internet applications.

What's new in TLS version 1. The TLS standard 1.3 has two major new features.

Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral Generation. TLS Downgrade Mitigation with Session Resumption. Let's discuss both of them one by one. Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral Generation When we use TLS (the same thing as SSL) with a public key protocol, we use one of two protocols: RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) or DSA (Diffie-Hellman). There are some downsides in using those algorithms. RSA and DSA are both well known and easy to use, but they have two problems:

Large keys. RSA and DSA are algorithms for public-key cryptography. Their security is based on computational hardness of factoring numbers. To make the math simpler, you can assume that a number p that is close to a prime number is not very hard to factor. But because the keys need to be 2023 bits or larger, public-key systems such as SSL and TLS are not effective if you need to exchange highly sensitive information with the server.

Key pre-distribution. RSA and DSA are based on the difficulty of factoring composite numbers. If you want to use an ephemeral Diffie-Hellman algorithm, then you can't simply send a public key that can be used for key generation because factoring such a number is equivalent to computing the discrete logarithm problem. We need to somehow pre-distribute the values so that they can't be reversed, and the distribution method must be considered when pre-distributing the keys.

You can see from the second problem that pre-distribution of the keys is difficult, and that's why we invented the elliptic curve cryptography which is more efficient.

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